스웨덴 수도 스톡홀름에 아주 인기 있는 박물관이 있다. '바사 박물관'(VASAMUSEET)이다. 1628년 8월10일의 처녀항해 때 침몰한 戰艦(전함) '바사'를 1961년에 건져 복원했다. 이 복원된 전함을 전시하고 있는 박물관이다. 매년 100만 명 이상이 구경하러 온다.
낙후되었던 스웨덴을 유럽의 强國(강국)으로 만든 구스타프 2세 아돌프 大王의 명령에 의하여 만들어진 이 전함은 상부가 너무 무거워 풍랑이 불자 뒤집어지면서 침몰하였다. 전함은 길이가 69m, 높이가 49m이다. 1200t에 64개의 대포를 실었고, 탑승 선원은 400명이 넘었다. 이 가운데 약 50명이 구조되었다. 다행히 해안에 가깝고 얕은 바다 밑이어서 건져올릴 수 있었다. 1만4000개의 조각을 맞추어 복원한 戰艦이므로 원래의 材質(재질)에 원래의 모습이다.
전복 사고 후 구스타프 大王은 관련자를 처벌하도록 지시, 조사가 시작되었다. 그러나 아무도 처벌받지 않았다. 관련자들의 과실이 발견되지 않았고, 설계자들은 '왕의 명령에 따랐을 뿐'이라고 책임을 轉嫁(전가)하였다. 사고원인은 '神의 뜻'으로 귀착되었다.
구스타프 아돌프 대왕은 전쟁의 天才(천재)였다. 나폴레옹과 클라우제비츠가 숭배한 장군 왕이었다. 구스타프는 기병, 보병, 포병, 보급부대를 유기적으로 통합하여 기동전을 펼쳤다. 기병과 보병은 대포를 쏠 수 있도록 훈련을 받았다. 兵科(병과)가 달라도 서로 도왔다. 戰史學者들은, 현대전의 기본 원리를 만든 그를 '현대전의 아버지'라고 부른다.
구스타프 대왕은 열일곱 살에 王이 되었다. 왕자 시절부터 英明(영명)한 인물이었다. 외국 사신을 접견할 때 그 사신의 나라 말을 할 수 있을 정도였다. 라틴어로 말하고 쓸 줄 알았다. 당시 스웨덴은 덴마크, 러시아, 폴란드와 동시 전쟁을 벌이고 있었다.
이 세 방면의 전쟁에서 모두 승리하였다. 1618년 독일을 무대로 한 30년 전쟁 때 그는 新敎徒(신교도) 편에서 참전하였다. 그가 이끄는 스웨덴 군대는 舊敎(구교) 편인 합스부르크 왕조(神聖로마제국)와 폴란드 연합군을 격파해갔다. 한때 뮌헨이 있는 바이에른 지방까지 진출하였다.
그가 이끈 스웨덴 군은 당시 유럽 최강이었다. 잘 훈련된 스웨덴 보병의 사격은 명중률이 높았고 발사 시간이 빨랐다. 구스타프 대왕은 1632년 11월6일 독일에서 전투중 戰死하였다. 사령관이 죽었는데도 스웨덴 軍은 승리하였다. 스웨덴의 귀족회의는 그에게 '大王'이란 칭호를 쓰기로 결의하였다. 스웨덴 왕 가운데 大王 칭호는 그가 지금까지 유일하다. 그가 죽었을 때 나이 38세, 在位는 21년이었다.
스웨덴은 16세기 초반까지 덴마크의 통치를 받았다. 구스타프 대왕은 스웨덴이 독립한 지 100년 만에 유럽에서 러시아, 스페인 다음으로 면적이 큰 强國을 만들었다. 발트해는 스웨덴의 호수가 되었다. 戰艦 바사호 앞에 서면 스웨덴 전성기의 영웅적인 기상을 느낄 수 있다.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
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"Gustavus Adolphus" redirects here. For the college in Minnesota, see Gustavus Adolphus College.
For the other Swedish kings known as Gustavus Adolphus, see Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden.
Gustav II Adolf
King of Sweden
Reign 30 October 1611 – 6 November 1632 (&000000000000002100000021 years, &00000000000000070000007 days)
Coronation 12 October 1617
Predecessor Charles IX
Spouse Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
Father Charles IX
Mother Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
Born 9 December 1594
Castle Tre Kronor, Sweden
Died 16 November 1632 (aged 37)
Lützen, Electorate of Saxony
Burial 22 June 1634
Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm
House of Vasa
Erik Johansson, Cecilia Månsdotter
Eric XIV, John III, Catherine, Cecilia, Magnus, Anna Maria, Sophia, Elizabeth, Charles IX
Sigismund, Anna, John
Władysław IV, John II Casimir, John Albert, Charles Ferdinand, Alexander Charles, Anna Catherine Constance
Catherine, Gustav II Adolf, Maria Elizabeth, Christina, Charles Philip
Charles X Gustav
Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and variously in historical writings also as Gustavus, or Gustavus the Great, or Gustav Adolph the Great (Swedish: Gustav Adolf den store, a formal distinction passed by the Swedish Parliament in 1634), was founder of the Swedish Empire (or Stormaktstiden – "the era of great power") at the beginning of the Golden Age of Sweden. He was the King of Sweden (1611?) who led the nation to military supremacy during the Thirty Years War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. His most notable military victory was the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). With a superb military machine with good weapons, excellent training, and effective field artillery, all backed by a highly efficient government back home that paid the bills on time, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader, but he was killed in battle in 1632. He was assisted by Axel Oxenstierna (1583?), leader of the nobles who also acted as regent after his death.
In the era, which was characterized by nearly endless warfare, he led his armies as king from 1611 (at age 17) until his death in battle while leading a charge during 1632 —as Sweden rose from the status as a mere regional power and run-of-the-mill kingdom to one of the great powers of Europe and a model of early modern era government. Sweden expanded to become the third biggest nation in Europe after Russia and Spain within only a few years during his reign. Some have called him the "father of modern warfare", or the first great modern general. Under his tutelage, Sweden and the Protestant cause developed a number of excellent commanders, such as Lennart Torstensson, who would go on to defeat Sweden's enemies and expand the boundaries and the power of the empire long after Gustav Adolph's death in battle.
He was known by the epithets "The Golden King" and "The Lion of the North" by neighboring sovereigns. Gustavus Adolphus is today commemorated by city squares in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Sundsvall. Gustavus Adolphus College, a Lutheran college in St. Peter, Minnesota, is also named for the Swedish king.
2 Legacy as a general
3 Military commander
3.1 Alternative views
6 Gustavus Adolphus Day
7 In fiction
9 See also
11 External links
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Gustavus Adolphus was born in Stockholm as the oldest son of Duke Charles of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. At the time, the King of Sweden was Gustavus Adolphus' cousin Sigismund. The staunch Protestant Duke Charles forced the Catholic King to let go of the throne of Sweden in 1599, a part of the preliminary religious strife before the Thirty Years' War, and reigned as regent before taking the throne as Charles IX of Sweden in 1604. Upon his father's death in 1611, a seventeen year-old Gustavus inherited the throne as well as an ongoing succession of occasionally belligerent dynastic disputes with his Polish cousin. Sigismund III wanted to regain the throne of Sweden and tried to force Gustavus Adolphus to renounce the title.
The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus depicted at the turning point of the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) against the forces of Count Tilly.In a round of this dynastic dispute, Gustavus invaded Livonia when he was 31, beginning the Polish-Swedish War (1625?). He intervened on behalf of the Lutherans in Germany, who opened the gates to their cities to him. His reign became famous from his actions a few years later when on June 1630 he landed in Germany, continuing Sweden's involvement in the ongoing Thirty Years' War. Gustavus intervened on the anti-Imperial side, which at the time was losing to the Holy Roman Empire and its Catholic allies the Swedish forces would quickly reverse that situation.
Gustavus was married to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, the daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, and chose the Prussian city of Elbing as the base for his operations in Germany. He died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632. His early death was a great loss to the Lutheran side. This resulted in large parts of Germany and other countries, which for a large part had become Lutheran, to be returned to Catholicism (via Counter-Reformation). His involvement in the Thirty Years' War gave rise to the old prophecy that he was the incarnation of "the Lion of the North", or as it is called in German "Der Löwe von Mitternacht" (Literally: "The Lion of Midnight").
 Legacy as a general
Gustavus Adolphus was known as an able military commander. His innovative tactical integration of infantry, cavalry, artillery and logistics earned him the title of the "Father of Modern Warfare". Future commanders who studied and admired Gustav II Adolf include Napoleon I of France and Carl von Clausewitz. His advancements in military science made Sweden the dominant Baltic power for the next one hundred years (see Swedish Empire). He is also the only Swedish monarch to be styled "the Great". This decision was made by the Swedish Estates of the Realm, when they convened in 1633. Thus, by their decision he is officially, to this day, to be called Gustaf Adolf the Great (Gustavus Adolphus Magnus).
Gustavus Adolphus was the main figure responsible for the success of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War and led his nation to great prestige. As a general, Gustavus Adolphus is famous for employing mobile artillery on the battlefield, as well as very aggressive tactics, where attack was stressed over defense, and mobility and cavalry initiative were emphasized.
Among other innovations, he installed an early form of combined arms in his formations, where the cavalry could attack from the safety of an infantry line reinforced by cannon, and retire again within to regroup after their foray. He adopted much shallower infantry formations than were common in the pike and shot armies of the era, with formations typically fighting in 5 or 6 ranks, occasionally supported at some distance by another such formation—the gaps being the provinces of the artillery and cavalry as noted above. His artillery were themselves different—he would not let himself be hindered by cumbersome heavy cannon, but instead over a course of experimentation settled on smaller, more maneuverable weapons, in effect fielding the first light field artillery in history in any significant ratios.
These were grouped in batteries supporting his more linearly deployed formations, replacing the cumbersome and unmaneuverable traditional deep squares (such as the Spanish Tercios that were up to 50 ranks deep) used in other pike and shot armies of the day. In consequence, his forces could redeploy and reconfigure extremely rapidly, confounding his enemies.
His armies were very well trained for the day, so that his musketeers were widely known for their firing accuracy and reload speed: three times faster than any contemporary rivals. Carl von Clausewitz and Napoleon Bonaparte considered him one of the greatest generals of all time a sentiment agreed with by Patton and others. He was also renowned for the consistency of purpose and the amity of his troops—no one part of his armies was considered better or received preferred treatment, as was common in other armies where the cavalry were the elite, followed by the artillery, and both disdained the lowly infantry. In Gustavus' army the units were extensively cross trained. Both cavalry and infantry could service the artillery, as his heavy cavalry did when turning captured artillery on the opposing Catholic Tercios at First Breitenfeld. Pikemen could shoot—if not as accurately as those designated musketeers—so a valuable firearm could be kept in the firing line. His infantrymen and gunners were taught to ride, if needed. Napoleon thought highly of the achievement, and copied the tactics.
 Military commander
Gustavus Adolphus' landing in Pomerania, near Wolgast, 1630
Gustavus Adolphus' body in Wolgast, on transfer to Sweden, 1633
Gustav Adolph's sarcophagus at Riddarholm ChurchGustavus Adolphus inherited three wars from his father when he ascended the throne: Against Denmark, which had attacked Sweden earlier in 1611, against Russia, due to Sweden having tried to take advantage of the Russian Time of Troubles, and against Poland, due to King Charles' having deposed King Sigismund III, his nephew, as King of Sweden.
The war against Denmark (Kalmar War) was concluded in 1613 with a peace that did not cost Sweden any territory, but it was forced to pay a heavy indemnity to Denmark (Treaty of Knäred). During this war, Gustavus Adolphus let his soldiers plunder towns and villages as was customary in contemporary warfare. His memory in Scania has been negative because of that.
The war against Russia (Ingrian War) ended in 1617 with the Treaty of Stolbovo, which excluded Russia from the Baltic Sea. The final inherited war, the war against Poland, ended in 1629 with the Truce of Altmark which transferred the large province Livonia to Sweden and freed the Swedish forces for the subsequent intervention in the Thirty Years' War in Germany, where Swedish forces had already established a bridgehead n 1628.
When Gustavus Adolphus began his push into northern Germany in June-July 1630, he had just 4,000 troops. But he was soon able to consolidate the Protestant position in the north, using reinforcements from Sweden and money supplied by France (Treaty of Bärwalde). After Swedish plundering in Brandenburg (1631) endangered the system of retrieving war contributions from occupied territories, "marauding and plundering" by Swedish soldiers was prohibited. Meanwhile, a Catholic army under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly was laying waste to Saxony. Gustavus Adolphus met Tilly's army and crushed it at the First Battle of Breitenfeld in September 1631. He then marched clear across Germany, establishing his winter quarters near the Rhine, making plans for the invasion of the rest of the Holy Roman Empire.
In March 1632, Gustavus Adolphus invaded Bavaria, a staunch ally of the Emperor. He forced the withdrawal of his Catholic opponents at the Battle of Rain. This would mark the high point of the campaign. In the summer of that year, he sought a political solution that would preserve the existing structure of states in Germany, while guaranteeing the security of its Protestants. But achieving these objectives depended on his continued success on the battlefield.
Gustavus is reported to have entered battle without wearing any armor, proclaiming, "The Lord God, is my armor!" It is more likely that he simply wore a leather cuirass rather than going into battle wearing no battle protection whatsoever. In 1627, near Dirschau in Prussia, a Polish soldier shot him in the muscles above his shoulders. He survived, but the doctors could not remove the bullet, so from that point on, he could not wear an iron armor. Also, two fingers of his right hand were paralyzed.
Gustavus Adolphus was killed at the Battle of Lützen, when, at a crucial point in the battle, he became separated from his troops while leading a cavalry charge into a dense smog of mist and gunpowder smoke. After his death, his wife initially kept his body, and later his heart, in the castle of Nyköping for over a year. His remains (including his heart) now rest in Riddarholmskyrkan in Stockholm.
In February 1633, following the death of the king, the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates decided that his name would be styled Gustav Adolf the Great (or Gustaf Adolf den Store in Swedish). No such honor has been bestowed on any other Swedish monarch before or since.
The crown of Sweden was inherited in the Vasa family, and from Charles IX's time excluded those Vasa princes who had been traitors or descended from deposed monarchs. Gustavus Adolphus' younger brother had died ten years before, and therefore there were only the King's daughter left as a female heir. Maria Eleonora and the king's ministers took over the government on behalf of Gustavus Adolphus' underage daughter Christina upon her father's death. He left one other known child, his illegitimate son Gustav, Count of Vasaborg.
 Alternative views
The German Socialist Franz Mehring (1846?) wrote a biography of Gustavus Adolphus with a Marxist perspective on the actions of the Swedish king during the Thirty Years' War. In it, he makes a case that the war was fought over economics and trade rather than religion.
In his book "Ofredsår" ("Years of Warfare"), the Swedish historian and author Peter Englund argues that there was probably no single all-important reason for the king's decision to go to war. Instead, it was likely a combination of religious, security, as well as economic considerations.
This view is supported by German historian Johannes Burkhardt who writes that Gustavus entered the 30 Years War exactly 100 years after the publication of the Confessio Augustana, the core confession of faith of the Lutheran Church, and let himself be praised as its saviour. Yet Gustavus' own "manifesto of war" does not mention any religious motivations at all but speaks of political and economical reasons. Sweden would have to maintain its integrity in the face of several provocations and aggressions by the Habsburgian Empire. The manifesto was written by scholar Johann Adler Salvius in a style common of the time that promotes a "just war". Burkhardt argues that traditional Swedish historiography constructed a defensive interest in security out of that by taking the manifesto's text for granted. But to defend Stockholm, the occupation of the German Baltic territories would have been an extreme advance and the imperial Baltic Sea fleet mentioned as a threat in the manifesto had never reached more than a quarter of the size of the Swedish fleet. Moreover it was never maintained to challenge Sweden but to face the separatist Netherlands. So if ruling the Baltic Sea was a goal of Swedish strategy, the conquests in Germany were not a defensive war but an act of expansion. From Swedish Finland, Gustavus advanced along the Baltic Sea coast and eventually to Augsburg and Munich and he even urged the Swiss Confederacy to join him. This was no longer about Baltic interests but the imperial capitol of Vienna and the alpine passes were now in close reach of the Swedish army. Another point mentioned by Burkhardt is the Gothic legacy of the Swedes, which had become a political program. The Swedish king was also "Rex Gotorum", (Latin: King of the Goths) and the list of kings was traced back to the Gothic rulers to construct continuity. Prior to his embarkment to northern Germany, Gustavus urged the Swedish nobility to follow the example of conquests set by their Gothic ancestors. Had he lived longer, it would have been likely that Gustavus had reached out for the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire.
Gustav II Adolf's success in making Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, and perhaps the most important power in the Thirty Years' War after France and Spain, was due not only to his military brilliance, but also to important institutional reforms in Sweden's government. The chief among these reforms was the institution of the first Parish registrations, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript its populace.
Gustav II Adolf in Polish 'delia' coat, painting by Matthäus Merian, 1632July 1626. Gustavus Adolphus and his army disembark at Pillau, Prussia, during the Polish–Swedish War (1625?).
18 August 1627. The King is seriously wounded in the battle of Dirschau (Tczew).
June 1629 his troops meet up with imperial troops under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg, who used to serve under Gustav Adolph, and is ordered by emperor Ferdinand to aid Sigismund III.
May 1630 and 6 July Gustav Adolph lands in Germany.
September 1631. At the Battle of Breitenfeld, Gustavus Adolphus decisively defeats the Catholic forces led by Tilly, even after the allied Protestant Saxon army had been routed and fled with the baggage train.
April 1632. At the Battle of Lech, Gustavus Adolphus defeats Tilly once more, and in the battle Tilly sustains a fatal wound.
May 1632. Munich yields to the Swedish army.
September 1632. Gustavus Adolphus attacks the stronghold of Alte Veste, which is under the command of Wallenstein, but is repulsed, marking the first defeat in the Thirty Years' War of the previously invincible Swedes. This leads to defection of some mercenary elements in the Protestant army.
November 1632. At the Battle of Lützen, Gustavus Adolphus is killed in battle, but the Swedes win the fight thanks to Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, who assumes command and defeats Wallenstein. The Swedish war effort was kept up by generals Gustav Horn, Johan Banér, Lennart Torstenson and chancellor Axel Oxenstierna until the Peace of Westphalia.
A history of Gustavus Adolphus' wars was written by Johann Philipp Abelin.
 Gustavus Adolphus Day
Gustavus Adolphus Day is celebrated in Sweden each year on 6 November. On this day only, a special pastry with a chocolate or marzipan medallion of the king, is sold. The day is also an official flag day in the Swedish calendar. In Finland, the day is celebrated as svenska dagen or ruotsalaisuuden päivä, "Swedishness Day", and is a customary flag day. In Estonia, the day is known as Gustav Adolfi päev. In all three countries, 6 November is the name day for Gustav Adolf, one of the few exceptional name days in the year.
 In fiction
Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children mentions Gustavus Adolphus several times in the earlier scenes during which the characters are traveling with the Protestant Army. The Cook lampoons the "Hero King" by pointing out that first he sought to liberate Poland from the Germans, then sought liberate Germany from the Germans, and made a profit on the deal. His irreverence for the king also includes the fact that, unlike Mother Courage and the Chaplain, the Cook is a Dutchman not a Swede.
In the Ring of Fire series of novels by Eric Flint, Gustavus Adolphus is a major character, having not died in the Battle of Lützen. He helps a community of West Virginians, cosmically transported back into time, bring about a revolution of democracy throughout the Germanies. They in turn help to grow the Swedish empire through their technological knowledge of modern day warfare and the capabilities of mankind. They introduce many ideas to 17th century Europe such as radio, submarines, and airplanes. Gustavus Adolphus is portrayed as a tough, yet compassionate king with tolerant tendencies toward religion and the rights of the people to establish their own civil liberties.
Gustavus Adolphus's ancestors in three generations
Erik Johansson (Vasa)
Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa)
Cecilia Månsdotter (Eka)
Charles IX of Sweden (Vasa)
Erik Abrahamsson (Leijonhufvud)
Ebba Eriksdotter (Vasa)
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Frederick I of Denmark
Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Sophie of Pomerania
Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Christine of Hesse
Christine of Saxony
 See also
History of Sweden – Rise of Sweden as a Great Power
Gustav Gustavsson af Vasaborg
Gustavus Adolphus College
Gustav Adolf Grammar School
Brzezinski, Richard (illustrator: Hook, Richard)The Army of Gustavus Adolphus. Osprey Publishing (1993). ISBN 1855323508.
^ Dodge, Theodore Ayrault (1890). Gustavus Adolphus: A History of the Art of War from Its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account ... of Turenne, Conde, Eugene and Marlborough. Boston and New York: Da Capo Press Inc. ISBN 978-0306808630. http://books.google.com/books?id=uIsDAAAAYAAJ&dq.
^ Prinz, Oliver C. (2005) (in German). Der Einfluss von Heeresverfassung und Soldatenbild auf die Entwicklung des Militärstrafrechts. Osnabrücker Schriften zur Rechtsgeschichte. 7. Osnabrück: V&R unipress. pp. 40. ISBN 3899711297. Referring to Kroener, Bernhard R. (1993). "Militärgeschichte des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit bis 1648. Vom Lehnskrieger zum Söldner". in Neugebauer, Karl-Volker (in German). Grundzüge der deutschen Militärgeschichte. 1. Freiburg: Rombach. p. 32.
^ Kuosa, Tauno (1963). Jokamiehen Suomen historia II. Sata sotaista vuotta ("Everyman's Finnish History II: Hundred Warlike Years"). Helsinki: Werner Söderström Publishing Ltd.. (Finnish)
^ Burkhardt, Johann. "Ein Gotenkönig als Friedenskaiser? (lit.: A King of Goths as Emperor of Peace?)" (in German). Damals 42 (8/2010). Abstract in German.
 External links